The Writings of Audubon


"When a Pigeon is seen gliding through the woods and close to the observer, it passes like a thought, and on trying to see it again, the eye searches in vain; the bird is gone."

"I positively brought myself so much among the pigeons and in the woods of America that my ears were as if really filled with the noise of their wings..."

John J. Audubon

"On The Passenger Pigeon"

Birds of America


John James Audubon

Click here to see authenic newspaper article of Audubons account of the Wild Pigeon!

"I dismounted, seated myself on an eminence, and began to mark with my pencil, making a dot for every flock that passed. In a short time finding the task which I had, undertaken impracticable, as the birds poured in in countless multitudes, I rose, and counting the
dots then put down, found that 163 had been made in twenty-one minutes. I traveled on, and still met more the farther I proceeded. The air was literally filled with Pigeons; the light of noon-day was obscured as by an eclipse, the dung fell in spots, not unlike melting flakes of snow; and the continued buzz of wings had a tendency to lull my senses to repose."...Before sunset I reached Louisville, distance from Hardensburgh fifty-five miles. The Pigeons were still passing in undiminished numbers, and continued to do so for three days in succession.




THE PASSENGER PIGEON click to see his painting PLATE 62.--MALE AND FEMALE. ECTOPISTES MIGRATORIA, Linn. [Ectopistes migratorius.] Introduction The Wild Pigeon of North America

The Passenger Pigeon, or, as it is usually named in America, the Wild Pigeon, moves with
extreme rapidity, propelling itself by quickly repeated flaps of the wings, which it brings more or
less near to the body, according to the degree of velocity which is required. Like the Domestic
Pigeon, it often flies, during the love season, in a circling manner, supporting itself with both
wings angularly elevated, in which position it keeps them until it is about to alight. Now and
then, during these circular flights, the tips of the primary quills of each wing are made to strike
against each other, producing a smart rap, which may be heard at a distance of thirty or forty
yards. Before alighting, the Wild Pigeon, like the Carolina Parrot and a few other species of
birds, breaks the force of its flight by repeated flapping, as if apprehensive of receiving injury
from coming too suddenly into contact with the branch or the spot of ground on which it intends
to settle.

I have commenced my description of this species with the above account of its flight, because the
most important facts connected with its habits relate to its migrations. These are entirely owing to
the necessity of procuring food, and are not performed with the view of escaping the severity of
a northern latitude, or of seeking a southern one for the purpose of breeding. They consequently
do not take place at any fixed period or season of the year. Indeed, it sometimes happens that a
continuance of a sufficient supply of food in one district will keep these birds absent from
another for years. I know, at least, to a certainty, that in Kentucky they remained for several
years constantly, and were nowhere else to be found. They all suddenly disappeared one season
when the mast was exhausted, and did not return for a long period. Similar facts have been
observed in other States.

Their great power of flight enables them to survey and pass over an astonishing extent of country
in a very short time. This is proved by facts well known. Thus, Pigeons have been killed in the
neighborhood of New York, with their crops full of rice, which they must have collected in the
fields of Georgia and Carolina, these districts being the nearest in which they could possibly
have procured a supply of that kind of food. As their power of digestion is so great that they will
decompose food entirely in twelve hours, they must in this case have traveled between three and
four hundred miles in six hours, which shows their speed to be at an average of about one mile in
a minute. A velocity such as this would enable one of these birds, were it so inclined, to visit the
European continent in less than three days.

This great power of flight is seconded by as great a power of vision, which discover their food
with facility, and thus attain the object for which their journey has been undertaken. This I have
also proved to be the case, by having observed them, when passing over a sterile part of the
country, or one scantily furnished with food suited to them, keep high in the air, flying with an
extended front, so as to enable them to survey hundreds of acres at once. On the contrary, when
the land is richly covered with food, or the trees abundantly hung with mast, they fly low, in
order to discover the part most plentifully supplied.

Their body is of an elongated oval form, steered by a long well-plumed tail, and propelled by
well-set wings, the muscles of which are very large and powerful for the size of the bird. When
an individual is seen gliding through the woods and close to the observer, it passes like a
thought, and on trying to see it again, the eye searches in vain; the bird is gone.

The multitudes of Wild Pigeons in our woods are astonishing. Indeed, after having viewed them
so often, and under so many circumstances, I even now feel inclined to pause, and assure myself
that what I am going to relate is fact. Yet I have seen it all, and that too in the company of
persons who, like myself, were struck with amazement.


On the Migration of the Passenger Pigeon

In the autumn of 1813, I left my house at Henderson, on the banks of the Ohio, on my way to
Louisville. In passing over the Barrens a few miles beyond Hardensburgh, I observed the
Pigeons flying from north-east to south-west, in greater numbers than I thought I had ever seen
them before, and feeling an inclination to count the flocks that might pass within the reach of my
eye in one hour, "I dismounted, seated myself on an eminence, and began to mark with my pencil, making a dot for every flock that passed. In a short time finding the task which I had, undertaken impracticable, as the birds poured in in countless multitudes,I rose, and counting the
dots then put down, found that 163 had been made in twenty-one minutes. I traveled on, and still met more the farther I proceeded. The air was literally filled with Pigeons; the light of noon-day was obscured as by an eclipse, the dung fell in spots, not unlike melting flakes of snow; and the continued buzz of wings had a tendency to lull my senses to repose.

Whilst waiting for dinner at YOUNG'S inn at the confluence of Salt river with the Ohio, I saw,
at my leisure, immense legions still going by, with a front reaching far beyond the Ohio on the
west, and the beech-wood forests directly on the east of me. Not a single bird alighted; for not a
nut or acorn was that year to be seen in the neighborhood. They consequently flew so high, that
different trials to reach them with a capital rifle proved ineffectual; nor did the reports disturb
them in the least. I cannot describe to you the extreme beauty of their aerial evolutions, when a
Hawk chanced to press upon the rear of a flock. At once, like a torrent, and with a noise like
thunder, they rushed into a compact mass, pressing upon each other towards the center. In these
almost solid masses, they darted forward in undulating and angular lines, descended and swept
close over the earth with inconceivable velocity, mounted perpendicularly so as to resemble a
vast column, and, when high, were seen wheeling and twisting within their continued lines,
which then resembled the coils of a gigantic serpent.

Before sunset I reached Louisville, distant from Hardensburgh fifty-five miles. The Pigeons were still passing in undiminished numbers, and continued to do so for three days in succession.
The people were all in arms. The banks of the Ohio were crowded with men and boys,
incessantly shooting at the pilgrims, which there flew lower as they passed the river. Multitudes
were thus destroyed. For a week or more, the population fed on no other flesh than that of
Pigeons, and talked of nothing but Pigeons.


On The Behaviour of the Passenger Pigeon

It is extremely interesting to see flock after flock performing exactly the same evolutions which
had been traced as it were in the air by a preceding flock. Thus, should a Hawk have charged on
a group at a certain spot, the angles, curves, and undulations that have been described by the
birds, in their efforts to escape from the dreaded talons of the plunderer, are undeviatingly
followed by the next group that comes up. Should the bystander happen to witness one of these
affrays, and, struck with the rapidity and elegance of the motions exhibited, feel desirous of
seeing them repeated, his wishes will be gratified if he only remain in the place until the next
group comes up.

As soon as the Pigeons discover a sufficiency of food to entice them to alight, they fly around in
circles, reviewing the country below. During their evolutions, on such occasions, the dense mass
which they form exhibits a beautiful appearance, as it changes its direction, now displaying a
glistening sheet of azure, when the backs of the birds come simultaneously into view, and anon,
suddenly presenting a mass of rich deep purple. They then pass lower, over the woods, and for a
moment are lost among the foliage, but again emerge, and are seen gliding aloft. They now
alight, but the next moment, as if suddenly alarmed, they take to wing, producing by the
flapping of their wing a noise like the roar of distant thunder, and sweep through the forests to
see if danger is near. Hunger, however, soon brings them to the ground. When alighted, they are
seen industriously throwing up the withered leaves in quest of the fallen mast. The rear ranks are
continually rising, passing over the main-body, and alighting in front, in such rapid succession,
that the whole flock seems still on wing. The quantity of ground thus swept is astonishing, and
so completely has it been cleared, that the gleaner who might follow in their rear would find his
labor completely lost. Whilst feeding, their avidity is at times so great that in attempting to
swallow a large acorn or nut, they are seen gasping for a long while, as if in the agonies of


On the Hunting of Passenger Pigeons

On such occasions, when the woods are filled with these Pigeons, they are killed in immense
numbers, although no apparent diminution ensues. About the middle of the day, after their repast
is finished, they settle on the trees, to enjoy rest, and digest their food. On the ground they walk
with ease, as well as on the branches, frequently jerking their beautiful tail, and moving the neck
backwards and forwards in the most graceful manner. As the sun begins to sink beneath the
horizon, they depart en masse for the roosting-place, which not infrequently is hundreds of
miles distant, as has been ascertained by persons who have kept an account of their arrivals and

Let us now, kind reader, inspect their place of nightly rendezvous. One of these curious
roosting-places, on the banks of the Green river in Kentucky, I repeatedly visited. It was, as is
always the case, in a portion of the forest where the trees were of great magnitude, and where
there was little under-wood. I rode through it upwards of forty miles, and, crossing it in different
parts, found its average breadth to be rather more than three miles. My first view of it was about
a fortnight subsequent to the period when they had made choice of it, and I arrived there nearly
two hours before sunset. Few Pigeons were then to be seen, but a great number of persons, with
horses and wagons, guns and ammunition, had already established encampments on the borders.
Two farmers from the vicinity of Russelsville, distant more than a hundred miles, had driven
upwards of three hundred hogs to be fattened on the pigeons which were to be slaughtered. Here
and there, the people employed in plucking and salting what had already been procured, were
seen sitting in the midst of large piles of these birds. The dung lay several inches deep, covering
the whole extent of the roosting-place. Many trees two feet in diameter, I observed, were broken
off at no great distance from the ground; and the branches of many of the largest and tallest had
given way, as if the forest had been swept by a tornado. Every thing proved to me that the
number of birds resorting to this part of the forest must be immense beyond conception. As the
period of their arrival approached, their foes anxiously prepared to receive them. Some were
furnished with iron-pots containing sulfur, others with torches of pine-knots, many with poles,
and the rest with guns. The sun was lost to our view, yet not a Pigeon had arrived. Every thing
was ready, and all eyes were gazing on the clear sky, which appeared in glimpses amidst the tall
trees. Suddenly there burst forth a general cry of "Here they come!" The noise which they made,
though yet distant, reminded me of a hard gale at sea, passing through the rigging of a
close-reefed vessel. As the birds arrived and passed over me, I felt a current of air that surprised
me. Thousands were soon knocked down by the pole-men. The birds continued to pour in. The
fires were lighted, and a magnificent, as well as wonderful and almost terrifying, sight presented
itself. The Pigeons, arriving by thousands, alighted everywhere, one above another, until solid
masses were formed on the branches all round. Here and there the perches gave way under the
weight with a crash, and, falling to the ground, destroyed hundreds of the birds beneath, forcing
down the dense groups with which every stick was loaded. It was a scene of uproar and
confusion. I found it quite useless to speak, or even to shout to those persons who were nearest
to me. Even the reports of the guns were seldom heard, and I was made aware of the firing only
by seeing the shooters reloading.

No one dared venture within the line of devastation. The hogs had been penned up in due time,
the picking up of the dead and wounded being left for the next morning's employment. The
Pigeons were constantly coming, and it was past midnight before I perceived a decrease in the
number of those that arrived. The uproar continued the whole night; and as I was anxious to
know to what distance the sound reached, I sent off a man, accustomed to perambulate the
forest, who, returning two hours afterwards, informed me he had heard it distinctly when three
miles distant from the spot. Towards the approach of day, the noise in some measure subsided:
long before objects were distinguishable, the Pigeons began to move off in a direction quite
different from that in which they had arrived the evening before, and at sunrise all that were able
to fly had disappeared. The howling of the wolves now reached our ears, and the foxes, lynxes,
cougars, bears, raccoons, opossums and pole-cats were seen sneaking off, whilst eagles and
hawks of different species, accompanied by a crowd of vultures, came to supplant them, and
enjoy their share of the spoil.

It was then that the authors of all this devastation began their entry amongst the dead, the dying,
and the mangled. The Pigeons were picked up and piled in heaps, until each had as many as he
could possibly dispose of, when the hogs were let loose to feed on the remainder.

Persons unacquainted with these birds might naturally conclude that such dreadful havoc would
soon put an end to the species. But I have satisfied myself, by long observation, that nothing but
the gradual diminution of our forests can accomplish their decrease, as they not infrequently
quadruple their numbers yearly, and always at least double it. In 1805 I saw schooners loaded in
bulk with Pigeons caught up the Hudson river, coming in to the wharf at New York, when the
birds sold for a cent a piece. I knew a man in Pennsylvania, who caught and killed upwards of
500 dozens in a clap-net in one day, sweeping sometimes twenty dozens or more at a single haul.
In the month of March 1830, they were so abundant in the markets of New York, that piles of
them met the eye in every direction. I have seen the Negroes at the United States' Salines or
Saltworks of Shawanee Town, wearied with killing Pigeons, as they alighted to drink the water
issuing from the leading pipes, for weeks at a time; and yet in 1826, in Louisiana, I saw
congregated flocks of these birds as numerous as ever I had seen them before, during a residence
of nearly thirty years in the United States.


The Breeding Habits of the Passenger Pigeon

The breeding of the Wild Pigeons, and the places chosen for that purpose, are points of great
interest. The time is not much influenced by season, and the place selected is where food is most
plentiful and most attainable, and always at a convenient distance from water. Forest-trees of
great height are those in which the Pigeons form their nests. Thither the countless myriads resort,
and prepare to fulfill one of the great laws of nature. At this period the note of the Pigeon is a soft
coo-coo-coo-coo, much shorter than that of the domestic species. The common notes resemble
the monosyllables kee-kee-kee-kee, the first being the loudest, the others gradually diminishing
in power. The male assumes a pompous demeanor, and follows the female, whether on the
ground or on the branches, with spread tail and drooping wings, which it rubs against the part
over which it is moving. The body is elevated, the throat swells, the eyes sparkle. He continues
his notes, and now and then rises on the wing, and flies a few yards to approach the fugitive and
timorous female. Like the domestic Pigeon and other species, they caress each other by billing,
in which action, the bill of the one is introduced transversely into that of the other, and both
parties alternately disgorge the contents of their crop by repeated efforts. These preliminary
affairs are soon settled, and the Pigeons commence their nests in general peace and harmony.
They are composed of a few dry twigs, crossing each other, and are supported by forks of the
branches. On the same tree from fifty to a hundred nests may frequently be seen:--I might say a
much greater number, were I not anxious, kind reader, that however wonderful my account of
the Wild Pigeon is, you may not feel disposed to refer it to the marvelous. The eggs are two in
number, of a broadly elliptical form, and pure white. During incubation, the male supplies the
female with food. Indeed, the tenderness and affection displayed by these birds towards their
mates, are in the highest degree striking. It is a remarkable fact, that each brood generally
consists of a male and a female.

Here again, the tyrant of the creation, man, interferes, disturbing the harmony of this peaceful
scene. As the young birds grow up, their enemies, armed with axes, reach the spot, to seize and
destroy all they can. The trees are felled, and made to fall in such a way that the cutting of one
causes the overthrow of another, or shakes the neighboring trees so much, that the young
Pigeons, or squabs, as they are named, are violently hurried to the ground. In this manner also,
immense quantities are destroyed.

The young are fed by the parents in the manner described above; in other words, the old bird
introduces its bill into the mouth of the young one in a transverse manner, or with the back of
each mandible opposite the separations of the mandibles of the young bird, and disgorges the
contents of its crop. As soon as the young birds are able to shift for themselves, they leave their
parents, and continue separate until they attain maturity. By the end of six months they are
capable of reproducing their species.


Various Aspects of Passenger Pigeon Lore

The flesh of the Wild Pigeon is of a dark color, but affords tolerable eating. That of young birds
from the nest is much esteemed. The skin is covered with small white filmy scales. The feathers
fall off at the least touch, as has been remarked to be the case in the Carolina Turtle-dove. I have
only to add, that this species, like others of the same genus, immerses its head up to the eyes
while drinking.

In March 1830, I bought about 350 of these birds in the market of New York, at four cents a
piece. Most of these I carried alive to England, and distributed them amongst several noblemen,
presenting some at the Same time to the Zoological Society.

This celebrated bird is mentioned by Dr. RICHARDSON as "annually reaching the 62nd degree
of latitude, in the warm central districts of the Fur Countries, and attaining the 58th parallel on
the coast of Hudson's Bay in very fine summers only. Mr. HUTCHINS mentions a flock which
visited York Factory and remained there two days, in 1775, as a very remarkable occurrence. A
few hordes of Indians that frequent the low flooded tracts at the south end of Lake Winnipeg,
subsist principally on the Pigeons, during a part of the summer, when the sturgeon-fishery is
unproductive, and the Zizania aquatica has not yet ripened; but farther north, these birds are too
few in number to furnish a material article of diet." Mr. TOWNSEND states that this species is
found on the Rocky Mountains, but not on the Columbia river, where the Band-tailed Pigeon,
Columba fasciata of Say, is abundant. Whilst in the Texas, I was assured that the Passenger
Pigeon was plentiful there, although at irregular intervals. In the neighborhood of Boston it
arrives, as Dr. T. M. BREWER informs me, in small scattered flocks, much less numerous than
in the interior of that State.

My friend Dr. BACHMAN says, in a note sent to me, "In the more cultivated parts of the United
States, these birds now no longer breed in communities. I have secured many nests scattered
throughout the woods, seldom near each other. Four years ago, I saw several on the mountains
east of Lansinburgh, in the State of New York. They were built close to the stems of thin but tall
pine trees (Pinus strobus), and were composed of a few sticks; the eggs invariably two, and
white. There is frequently but one young bird in the nest, probably from the loose manner in
which it has been constructed, so that either a young bird or an egg drops out. Indeed, I have
found both at the foot of the tree. This is no doubt accidental, and not to be attributed to a habit
which the bird may be supposed to have of throwing out an egg or one of its young. I have
frequently taken two of the latter from the same nest and reared them. The Wild Pigeons appear
in Carolina during winter at irregular periods, sometimes in cold, but often in warm weather,
driven here no doubt, as you have mentioned, not by the cold, but by a failure of mast in the
western forests." A curious change of habits has taken place in England in those Pigeons which I
presented to the Earl of DERBY in 1830, that nobleman having assured me that ever since they
began breeding in his aviaries, they have laid only one egg. My noble friend has raised a great
number of these birds, and has distributed them freely. It is not therefore very surprising that
some which have escaped from confinement have been shot; but that this species should naturally
have a claim to be admitted into the British Fauna appears to me very doubtful. The eggs measure
one inch five-eighths in length, one inch one-eighth and a half in breadth, and are nearly equally
rounded at both ends.

Wanders continually in search of food throughout all parts of North America. Wonderfully
abundant at times in particular districts.

John J. Audubon


Other Pages to visit while you are here!

1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11 - 12


This page has been visitedtimes.